Fill a medium size bowl with ice water.
Fill a medium saucepan with 1 1/2 quarts of water and bring to a boil. Trim the broccoli rabe harvesting the flowers/florets and the young, tender leaves.
Boil the broccoli rable for 1 minute. Using a spider, remove the flowers and leaves from the boiling water and plunge directly into the ice bath. Drain and set aside. Return the broccoli-cooking water to a boil and add the mezze penne. Cook according to package directions.
Heat oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the sweet onion and garlic and cook, stirring occasionally, until softened, about 2 minutes. Add anchovies or anchovy paste and the drained and soaked raisins and cook, stirring, for 1 minute. Using the back of a wooden spoon, smash the raisins slightly. Add the white wine, torn basil, and 1/4 teaspoon of cayenne and cook, stirring, for 30 seconds. Add tomato sauce and cook, stirring, for 2 minutes. Reduce heat and simmer for about 10 minutes, stirring occasionally. The sauce should appear slightly soupy. Thin with a little of the pasta-cooking water, if necessary.
Add the cooked penne to the sauce along with the broccoli and the pine nuts. Remove the garlic clove if you like. I leave it in. Season the sauce with the remaining 1/8 teaspoon salt and pepper and taste for the need for additional cayenne.
Serve immediately topped with freshly grated Pecorino cheese.